Evolution

Same Genes, Same Conditions, Different Transport

Groningen, Netherlands — The bacterium Lactococcus lactis, which plays an important role in the dairy industry, is unable to produce the amino acid methionine and has to rely on uptake from the environment....

How Three Genes Rule Plant Symbioses

Norwich, UK — For billions of years life on Earth was restricted to aquatic environments, the oceans, seas, rivers and lakes. Then 450 million years ago the first plants colonized land, evolving in...

Reconstructing the Diet of Fossil Vertebrates

Leipzig, Germany — Information on what our ancestors ate is based mainly on carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses of the structural protein collagen in bones and dentin. Nitrogen isotope analysis, in...

Targeting Cancer Microenvironment

Vienna, Austria — The recognition of bacterial infections or foreign substances is mediated and controlled by the human immune system. This innate and adaptive immune system comprises the most important...

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